How much technology companies earn from your data online

How much technology companies earn from your data online

U.S. Senator Mark R. The law proposed by Warner and Josh Holley wants to protect privacy by forcing the technology companies to disclose the real value of their data to users.

In particular, companies with more than 100 million users will be able to assess the financial value of their data to each user as well as revenue resulting from “data collection, gathering, processing, selling, using, or sharing” Must be disclosed.

In addition, the dashboard empowers users to delete their data from the corporate database.

As a researcher who searches ethical and political implications of digital platforms and large-scale data, I sympathize with Bill’s ambition to increase transparency and empower users.

However, estimating the value of user data is not easy and I do not think it solves confidentiality issues.

Data collector

Data collected by technology companies is not limited to identifying traditional information like name, age and gender.

Instead, as Harvard historian Rebecca Limof noted, it includes “Tweets, Facebook, twitch, Google search, online comments, one-click purchases, even images in the feed, but leaving them Please. ”

In other words, large-scale data contains intimate life moments.

If Facebook captures your conversation with friends and family, then your late night searches by Google and Alexa’s living room command will not tell you at all, as stated.

However, calculating the value of user data is not so easy. The estimate of user data is quite different.

Includes a rating of less than $ 100 more than the $ 1 per person for Facebook user.

A user sold his data on a cake starter for $ 2,733 To achieve this number, it had to share data with keystrokes, mouse movements and repetitive screen shots.

Unfortunately, the dashboard does not specify how the value of a user’s data is estimated.

I think the Commission will quickly realize that it is a difficult task to estimate the value of user data.

More than personal

The purpose of the proposed law is to provide more transparency to the users. However, privacy is no longer just a matter of personal data.

The data you share can provide some ideas about the lives of many people.

For example, Facebook fans can help you predict the user’s sexual orientation with high accuracy.

The goal was to use their purchasing data to predict pregnant customers. The retailer came to know that this matter was widely followed before its teenage father was pregnant.

The power of this prediction means that personal information is not included in user data only.

Depending on the statistical link in the data of many users, companies can also estimate your own information.

How can these figures be devalued for the values ​​of individual dollars?

In addition, this ability to use statistical analysis to identify people related to the group group can have a far-reaching effect on privacy.

If service providers can use a predictive analysis to estimate a person’s sexual orientation, race, sex and religious beliefs, then what prevents them from discriminating on this basis?

Once lost, forecasting techniques will continue to work even if users remove the data part they helped build.

Control through data

Data sensitivity not only depends on what it involves, but how governments and companies affect it.

This is evident in my current research on China’s planned social security system. To regulate the behavior of Chinese citizens, the Chinese government is planning to use national databases and trust levels.

Google, Amazon and Facebook, as the author Shoshana Zubov has argued, use the estimated data to “adjust our behavior toward the most profitable results.”

In 2014, how Facebook tried to feed it to affect the emotional status of users in a popular protest, its search ended.

However, this example has demonstrated how digital platforms generally use data to engage users and in this process generate more data.

The secret of data is largely about the capability of a large technology that shapes your personal life as it relates to what you know about yourself.


The truth is that with all the implications of privacy, dataification does not affect everyone equally.

Large-scale data and hidden discrimination of network discrimination continue again in gender, race and class disparities.

Chandrayaan-2 hopes to achieve

Chandrayaan-2 hopes to achieve

Indian Space Research Organization launches missile on Sriharikota Island off Andhra Pradesh coast This is called the Mark-III satellite launch vehicle.

Telugu is called Bahubali, which includes the popular movie, which also includes a great warrior because it can carry up to four tonnes.

In addition to the orbiting of the Moon, the ejector will also take a spacecraft called Vikram, which is named as the father of Indian Space Program.

Vikram will be named after Sarabhai. There will be a rover named Pragyan inside Vikram, which means knowledge in Sanskrit.

Chandrayaan-1 is India’s first mission, which was launched in October 2008. It revolves around the Moon and examines the effect of the Moon, which used to be used in the path before colliding with the Moon.

Chandrayaan-1 was the first person to find signs of water vapor in the Moon’s atmosphere and on its surface.

Chandrayaan-2 who is trying to do is a soft landing: Landing reaches the moon. If ISRO withdraws, then after the United States, Russia and China, India will be the fourth country to land on the Moon. In April 2019, an Israeli space shuttle failed to land on the moon due to technical problems.

How will it

Once launched into space, GSLV will take the MK-III lunar unit into Earth orbit. This unit will drop the rocket and spin several times around the earth, which will accelerate using gravitational force as it restores itself towards the Moon.

In the end, he will get out of his class and himself will be killed against the moon, after which with the moon’s flux, if things go well.

To stay in the moon’s gravitational field, the speed of defense on the plane will be slow. Before the separation of Vikrama from the orbit, the moon will then rotate.

On the day of landing, on September 6, Vikram will take a different course in orbit around the moon before using laser on the board to find a landing site.

Then, in a 15-minute charge, Vikrama will land on the moon.

To land, the land will have to land, and the moon will have to oppose the pull of gravity. For this, the release of the propulsion engine will be required, due to which the dust of the moon will fly.

The moon’s dust is sharp and rough and sticks to surfaces due to its negative charge and the solar panels and sensors are interrupted.

Landing sites can have landscape features that prevent communication, which means that the control station may lose contact with the landing of the vehicle.

If Vikrama successfully landed, then it will open a moon vehicle for the release of the Pradhan. If the door is damaged due to landing, then it can not open, but if it does, then it will be visible in Prague. It will take four hours to reduce the record and come on the moon’s radar.

Two towers run at a speed of 1 cm per second and can travel half a kilometer from Vikram. Earth will equal 14 days – a moon day will travel on the moon and everything that learns Vikram, and then will return to Earth.

Why South Moon

A successful landing Chandrayaan-2 will perform the first lunar probe in the Antarctic Moon. This area is particularly important because it receives little sunshine. Due to the axis of the Moon’s axis, some parts remain permanently in shadow.

There are large canals that make the so-called cold trap: Not only is the cooling area sufficient to stabilize the water, but also a group of volatile compounds.

The cold nets on the moon can go below 200 ° C – so much cold that most of the gases accumulate.

The compounds in these cold nets can be frozen for 3 billion years and can be recorded in the initial solar system. The hypothesis of the giant effect can be confirmed: The Moon was formed when 4.4 billion years ago, an object collided with the shape of the planet.

Chandrayaan-2 what does it hope to achieve

Chandrayaan-1 receives evidence of the presence of water molecules on the Moon. Two towers will carry a spectrum: a device that can compute the structure of the material through radiation.

It will also take an advanced synthetic aperture radar, which can test the presence of water on the rock of several meters. If it is proved that the moon has sufficient reserves of water, it can keep human life one day.

The orbit of orbiting the moon more than 100km in a year. It takes eight payloads from high resolution cameras to one spectrometer to measure the atmospheric composition of the Moon.

Chandrayaan-2 is the most complex task that ISRO does at the cost of about Rs 1,000 crore. It is completely original. It is India’s first interplanetary mission run by two women: Project Manager, M. Ventha and Task manager Reto Carlide.

There is a possibility of disruption, the Internet has strict requirements for an update

There is a possibility of disruption, the Internet has strict requirements for an update

How can a small Internet service provider in Pennsylvania become the reason for millions of locations around the world? It happened on 24th June when users were unable to reach a large part of the web.

The root cause is the dissection of Cloudfire, which is one of the leading content hosts on the Internet, depending on the affected sites.

Clouddlare tracked the problem of a regional ISP in Pennsylvania, who accidentally announced on the rest of the internet that the best ways to access Cloudflare were through their small network.

This gave ISP a large part of global traffic, which inspected its limited capacity and restrained the arrival of cloudfire on the rest of the Internet.

As mentioned by Cloudflare, the internet was equal to a full highway on the neighborhood road.

This incident highlighted the magnitude of the Internet. In 2017 alone, there were approximately 14,000 such accidents.

Given that it is very important for most of the world’s economic and social life, should the network not only be designed to withstand short hiccups, but also to withstand major calamities, and prevent small problems from changing into big problems. for?

Management bodies, such as the European Network and Information Security Agency, have repeatedly warned of the risk of such incidents due to global internet failure. However, the internet is still fragile.

Like the street network, the internet has highways and intersections, with cable and router. The navigation system that manages data flow around the network is called the border gateway protocol.

When you visit this site, the Border Gateway Protocol sets the path through which location data will be transferred to your device.

The problem is that the Gateway Gateway Protocol was designed for only a temporary solution, a good enough solution when the Internet was growing rapidly in the late 1980s.

After this, they proved to be good enough to help the network maintain large scale and became part of every primary router that manages the flow of data on major internet routes.

But it was not built keeping security in mind, and no mechanism was added to ensure that the paths sent by the gateway protocol for data were valid. As a result, routing errors are not detected until they cause the crowd and obstruction.

Even worse, who has access to the backbone router – which is trivial for someone with the right knowledge and budget – can create counterfeit methods to disrupt legitimate traffic, disrupt services and tap the communication.

This means that the modern Internet operates using an unsafe protocol which is used daily to organize communication with governments, financial institutions, weapon makers and coded currencies, often inspired by politics. – happens in the form of part of the war.

These problems have been known since at least 1998, when a group of hackers explained to the US Congress how easy it was to settle online communication. However, little has changed.

It was found that deploying necessary cryptographic solutions was difficult to replace the mid-flight planes.

Recent issues related to the Boeing 737 Max, such as in the case of actual flight, the regulators have the power to frame the entire fleet until repair. But there is no central authority on the internet.

It is the owner of various parts of the infrastructure and is managed by various institutions including corporations, governments and universities.

Conflicts between different researches, often in the interest of competition, mean that they have no incentives to make their own share of the Internet.

The organization will have to face the huge cost of deployment and operational risks, which come with switching to new technology, but it will not take any advantage unless a significant mass of other networks do so.

The most realistic solution will be to develop security protocols that do not require global coordination. But efforts to do this have also been interrupted by decentralized ownership of the Internet.

Operators have limited knowledge of what happens outside their network because companies’ desire is to keep their business confidential.

Consequently, the most important communication infrastructure in our society is not a complete sight on any day.

It underpaces the effort to design Internet behavior, making it difficult to design and evaluate dependable solutions.

Security improvements

Direct effects of this disappointing situation on national security have prompted government agencies to speed up their activities to protect important Internet infrastructure.

For example, in the United Kingdom, the National Cyber ​​Space Center has just launched an active cyber security program, which keeps the security of internet guidance at the top of its priorities.

Without a privacy law or a surveillance reform in India

Without a privacy law or a surveillance reform in India

There is no personal data protection law in India. The Center has promised to the Supreme Court that it will adopt such laws in the same way year ago, during which the court confirmed that Nizujata is a fundamental right.

But the law does not seem to have a chance soon.

There is also lack of electronic monitoring infrastructure in India. Last year, the draft Personal Data Protection Bill, drawn by the Justice Commission in Screener, left the ban on government surveillance.

The assumption was that another legislative effort would take care of him. Of course, this did not happen.

However, with small security measures, India is making every effort to break the lives of citizens – even private companies allow it to do so.

The latest threat to privacy comes in the form of face recognition. The government has already allowed airports to start deploying technology which allows passengers to use their face as a “boarding pass”.

Initiative allows private companies to use data for passenger approval.

In addition, the National Crime Records Office has invited bids to allow the automatic face detection system to be implemented. As a large database, imagine the bidding system as “a searchable platform for face images”.

It wants to integrate into many existing systems, such as criminal and criminal tracking networks and systems used by police stations everywhere, systems to find lost children and more.

The government envisages using the system to match the faces of suspected criminals, prisoners, missing persons and others in the database, with the captive CCTV captains all over the country.

Defective technique

There are many problems in this matter, and a large number of discussions have been discussed by many analysts including the Freedom Internet, which has sent legal notice to the Crime Records Office and the Internal Ministry and demanded to immediately stop the tender process.

For one, it is purely an executive effort, which does not have any supporting legislation.

Without the data protection law or the control framework, and the lack of law governing the identity of the face, it should not be allowed – especially considering that the Supreme Court has recently ratified the right to privacy.

In addition, the face recognition technique proved to be extremely flawed.

A study of the University of Essex found that the Face Recognition System of the Metropolitan Police considered innocents four times out of five suspects.

Other research has shown that the current system, which relies on automated learning and algorithms, comes with built-in gases.

They often target unpleasant people who suffer from dark skin colors and women.

The danger should be clear here: individuals and courts believe that technology is somewhat more accurate than human rule, although it often reflects the prejudices of society.

Trusting this technique at this level is very worrying.

Many locations around the world, including San Francisco and Oakland, California, have completely banned facial identification, saying that the technology is not in conformity with privacy.

Elsewhere, equipment is carefully checked before being implemented by the governments.

Indians are worth a lot of attention and consideration before they are subject to very flawed techniques which are currently nothing in the way of conservation.

To public consultations, laws establishing safety inspections and proper proof that face recognition is in fact, the government should withdraw its proposals and first focus on issuing the Privacy Act which Indians have promised for the first time .

The Indian Constitution guarantees the fundamental right of privacy. It was supported in August 2017 by a constitutional court verdict of nine judges of the Supreme Court.

This case was brought to Mukta Rohatgi in the Supreme Court after the claim in 2015, and the then Attorney General had said that there was no constitutional guarantee of right to privacy.

This claim was rejected by the nine-judge panel, which found that the constitution guaranteed the right to privacy.

More importantly, the matter was abandoned. B Sharma and Kharak Singh, to the extent that the rule of 2017 states that the Indian Constitution supports the right to privacy.

In the Supreme Court decision, the right to privacy has been read in two articles of the Constitution: Article 21 (Right to life and freedom) and Part III of the Constitution (Chapter on Fundamental Rights).

This means that any restriction on authority should not be completed only in accordance with Article 21 in the form of proper restriction, but when the loss of privacy violates other rights, such as the chilling effect on the freedom of expression control , A constitutional framework is now present in which these hearings are heard inside.

How tech companies be worried about DoJ’s antitrust review

How tech companies be worried about DoJ's antitrust review

But the investigation has been confirmed in a little detail, explaining only that the review “will take into account the widespread worries expressed by consumers, businesses and entrepreneurs about research, social networking and some online retail services.”

Who can talk about it? What are the concerns that people can express? Reading between lines is not difficult: they should be seen in the coming months.


Google’s parent company dominates many areas: online advertising, known by its name and Facebook as “binary monopoly” and searches the Internet and YouTube.

It has too much market power in cartography (Google Maps), webmail services (Gmail) and mobile operating system (Android).

Google has a strong defense of the search: Contrary to the discussion on many other companies, “the competition is just a click,” as the Google Larry Page founder had in 2012 when the company was concerned about the antitrust.

Changing the operating system is a daunting task. Switching to social networks is almost impossible. But to prevent you from becoming a Google researcher, you have to type in your address bar, and your work will be completed.

Jim Kellock, chairman of the Open Rights Group, believes that the advertising market will eventually be a tough fight, which Google will win.

“These companies make profits from advertising revenue, which is a big problem, because money is not needed for those who produce the content.

“Obviously this is the result of market dominance: Google, Facebook and IAB Partners are all eating this revenue, this is a kind of harassment for those who have general knowledge.”


Amazon is clearly a provider of “retail services” investigated by the Ministry of Justice. US Treasury Secretary Steve Menucin said on Wednesday that Amazon had “destroyed” American retail industry and its success was “limited competition”.

Amazon says that its market power is far from absolute: it consume almost half of all the dollars spent on the Internet, and only 5% of US retail Walmart’s revenues were twice the Amazon in 2018.

The strategies that criticized Amazon, from internal brands until payment promotion, are ideal in the retail sector.

But the question is where the line is drawn.

For example, Amazon’s dominance of e-book industry is almost complete; Its strength in retail printing is not very far, then Amazon is web services, which are still known hard outside the IT industry, which provide a technical infrastructure for a large portion of the web. Compete with Google and Microsoft


The United States is the strongest market for Apple. But even there, it is difficult to say that it monopolizes its main product: the mobile phone operating system is placed second, the desktop operating system is ranked second, the music broadcasting service is second place.

It leads the market in smart watches and tablets, but the success of the iPad and Apple Watch is only proportional to the failures of their rivals.

Instead, the question in front of the Justice Department is whether the power of Apple is being built within those markets. For example, the company can be only half a part of the smartphone market, but it’s definitely 100% market for the iOS App Store.

When there is a price of $ 300 million per day in the market, Apple proudly notes that the company still has very much power – as Sputwe complained, loudly, from the European Commission


Facebook has a monopoly, which is great: Thanks to Facebook, Messenger, Instagram and Whatsapp, the company has the largest social network in the United States.

Mark Zuckerberg argued that there was still competition in the wider sector where the company was running, telling American lawmakers last year that “American citizens … uses eight different social networking applications and applications.”

But if half of these apps have been created by Facebook, and the other half include email, text messaging and commercial communication services, it is difficult to take it as a reason to easily go into the company.

For Zuckerberg, Facebook has the most compelling reason for working: Their two biggest acquisitions, Instagram and What’sapp, are still relatively different, and their solutions will be technically out of reach.

Ben Thompson, a technical analyst, says that the acquisition of Instagram is “the biggest regulatory failure of the last decade,” partially due to the loss of the ability to compete on the same level of snapchat

the rest

Kellock argues that if the majority of the companies leave their inquiries, then the justice ministry will be small.

In the entire technology sector, he says: “You have a series of small monopolistic practices.” In the video stream from Netflix, Uber has auto sharing and enterprise presentation.